The monograph, based on the analysis of statistical data, establishes the wave-like nature of changes in the demographic situation and its periodization in Ukraine. The dependence of the birth rate on changes in GDP is formalized. An assessment of the volume of the educational market and forecasting changes in the contingent of applicants for secondary and higher education are evaluated. A quantitative analysis of the labor market in terms of groups of specialties and educational programs, and a quantitative assessment of the compliance of the popularity of entrants in specialties and educational programs to the demands of the labor market are conducted. It is conducted a quantitative analysis of employers’ requirements for candidates for a job, the availability of higher education and work experience. The demand of employers for soft skills job seekers and professional competencies in terms of specialty groups are estimated. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the structure of the labor market is studied. The clustering of specialties and educational programs by the criterion of similarity of demand for personal and professional competencies is conducted. The achievements and shortcomings of the functioning of the system of external independent evaluation (EIE) of learning outcomes in Ukraine are formulated. The possibilities of using the psychological characteristics of entrants, the scores of their EIE certificates to assess future learning outcomes and to assess career prospects after graduation are researched. A quantitative analysis of the system of financing higher education in Ukraine, including the current system of distribution of budget funds between of higher education institutions is conducted. The shortcomings of the current system and ways to eliminate them are substantiated.